Pregnancy Symptoms Week 30

No one can understand life unless it grows inside you. As you are passing through pregnancy symptoms week 30, growing belly is a clue that the baby is growing very quickly every day. This week of your conception comes along with a lot of discomforts but only 10 weeks left to meet with your little one. Isn’t exciting?

Your growing belly is not just causing trouble sleeping but also become a conversational piece wherever you go. It is not always a pleasure to listen to comments on your body shape. Sometimes people do not care about what they are saying, it can be embracing but do not take it seriously. We can understand the situation but think about your glowing skin!

This is the right time to learn different ways to overcome your anxiety about labor. Sign up for labor classes or you can practice at home.

Baby at 30 weeks pregnancy

Your baby is growing about half a pound and half-inch every week. Baby’s size is about a cabbage, 30 weeks old fetus measures around 15.7 inches long and weighs about 2.9 pounds by the end of this week.

Baby’s brain starts making wrinkles, convolutions so that it can hold more brain cells. Hands of your baby are fully formed with soft little nails. Aww! That’s cute.

30 weeks pregnant belly

As your pregnancy proceeds, belly is getting hard and tight. Healthy weight gain is about 18 to 25 pounds but fluctuations are expected. But 25 to 40 pounds is recommended weight gain for women pregnant with twins.

Are you feeling stressed about weight gain? This is going to be worth it so, do not agonize over it or to rush to put it off. Baby at 30 weeks is still floating in your womb, off course in amniotic fluid.

Sudden weight gain could be a sign of pregnancy complication called preeclampsia, notify your doctor about it as soon as possible.

Show at 30 weeks first week

Look at your 30 weeks pregnant bump, Wow! If you are pregnant with your first child, it must be an exciting and joyful moment. You may have a smaller bump than others who are pregnant with twins or having the second baby. But there is no need to compare yourself with others as every woman experiences a different journey.

Sex at pregnancy symptoms week 30

It is safe to have sex in this stage of conception if your doctor tells you everything is okay. But use protection and find some comfortable positions.

Sonogram

If your conception is going good so far then you probably will not have 30 weeks pregnant ultrasound. But you can have an ultrasound if you want to see what your baby is doing inside your belly.

If you are pregnant with twins, you may have NTS, a non-stress test combined with a 30th-week sonogram. So, this test is conducted to measure babies’ heart rates along with your contractions rates by attaching a belt on the belly. This is also known as the biophysical profile. If everything seems normal, then your twosome is doing fine.

30 weeks pregnant what to expect

Vivid dreams

At pregnancy symptoms week 30, your dreams are getting even weirder, if you can sleep. The reason can be your extra anxiety or pregnancy hormones, but you can help yourself by doing a certain activity before sleep such as reading a book.

Heartburn

This is another not-so-fun symptom caused by heavy, greasy, acidic, and spicy food choices. So, be careful about your daily diet routine. Heartburn at pregnancy symptoms week 30 often leads you to trouble sleeping.

30 weeks pregnant headache

Headaches during pregnancy symptoms week 30 are mostly related to poor body postures while sleeping and stress of labor. In the third trimester, headache can also be caused by a condition called preeclampsia, high blood pressure during conception.

General discomforts

All kinds of 30 weeks pregnant cramping, as well as your big belly, are the reason of your discomforts. Well, stay calm until your childbirth.

Changes in fetal movements

You may have experienced more kicks and jabs when you are laying or eating something. But there is a certain time when this activity is less as your baby’s quarters getting more cramped. But always discuss it with your partner and especially with your doctor.

Bloating and gas

As your uterus expands, putting a lot of pressure on your rectum. This can cause less control over muscles and you may experience uncontrollable passing of gas. Drink plenty of water to prevent this situation.

Diarrhea

Say thank you to pregnancy symptoms week 30 for diarrhea. It can strike due to dehydration or unhealthy food. Stay hydrated and speak with your doctor for healthy food choices.

Stomach pain 30 weeks pregnant

Stomach pain in the third trimester is notoriously hard to bear. Many people complain about a sharp pain in the upper or lower abdomen. In the upper abdomen, pains are usually harmless but in case of lower abdominal pain, contact with your doctor.

Tiredness

As you are putting a lot of weight now, you may get tired a bit sooner after doing a small activity. Sleep longer in the morning can be helpful. It will improve your energy levels.

Pregnancy transformations during pregnancy symptoms week 30

Swelling

A little swelling is normal in pregnancy and it can treat by doing exercises at home or by taking a warm bath. But for sudden and drastically swollen body parts, contact your doctor.

Shortness of breath

Your growing baby is taking more space and your lungs are getting crowded. This is the main reason behind the shortness of breath in pregnancy symptoms week 30. But it will benormal once you will enter in week 33 or 34.

Stretch marks

Almost 90 percent of women notice red or pink lines on their belly and thighs, known as stretch marks. It will disappear up to a great extent once you deliver the baby.

Precautions during 30th week of pregnancy

  • Regular intake of calcium and iron is good for your baby’s teeth and bones.
  • Use maternity belts to get relief from back pain.
  • Eat a balanced diet include fruits, veggies, and plenty of water.
  • Avoid certain workouts during the third trimester.
  • Use a pillow to stay propped.
  • Buy some flat comfy shoes, do not care about price.
  • Ask about episiotomies.

Checklist – pregnancy symptoms week 30

  • Plan your next prenatal appointment
  • Do research on childcare, visit childcare centers
  • Buy a baby car seat
  • Think about maternity photoshoot

 

When Do You Start Showing In Pregnancy?- All You Need To Know

Whenever you think about pregnancy, the first question that comes to your mind is when do you start showing in pregnancy?

All you need to know about when do you start showing in pregnancy

Whenever you think about pregnancy, the first question that comes to your mind is when do you start showing in pregnancy? All you can think of pregnancy is a big protruding belly that will have a baby in it. For some women, pregnancy is a very exciting experience and they look forward to that big belly bump so that they may show it to the world. While there are some women who love the idea of getting pregnant but they do not want to show it to the world and keep it a secret for as long as they can.

No matter which of these women you are, you must be willing to know when your pregnant belly will start announcing your news for you. Different women have different timelines to show their pregnancy, following are the things that will help you predict yours.

When does baby bump appear?

Mostly, the first trimester of pregnancy passes without you showing any visible changes in your belly. If you are looking forward to your belly to protrude out, you might start noticing very little changes as well. Most of the times the increase in your belly size is not because of the baby in it, but the blotting that you get during the first trimester. Such changes will come and go until the first trimester is over.

Normally, women show their pregnancy in the second trimester between 12th to 16th weeks. This is the time you would not be able to hide your baby bump behind your pelvic bones. Still, there are certain factors that can heavily impact the showing out of your pregnancy.

Factors that decide when do you start showing in pregnancy:

If you want to calculate when do you start showing in pregnancy, you have to keep all these factors in mind. If you are getting pregnant for the first time, you are most likely to take extra time to show your baby bump.

Your weight:

Showing your pregnancy is largely dependent upon your existing body weight. Since the changes leading to baby bump are very subtle, women with extra body weight might not be able to notice them very soon. The protruding belly will hide behind the extra pounds that you wear on your body. On the other hand, women with slimmer bodies will show pregnancy earlier than others. Even a slight change in the size of their uterus would be visible very soon.

Your height:

If you are a tall woman your pregnancy would be dispersed in your longer abdominal space. Height is one of the most important factors to decide when do you start showing in pregnancy. That is why taller women take extra time to show their baby bump. Even if they show it, the bump is smaller in the taller women. On the other hand, women with smaller stature will not have extra space in their body to hide their pregnancy for too long. That is why women with small height show pregnancy very soon.

Previous Pregnancies:

When you are pregnant for the first time, your uterus muscles are tighter, so are your abs muscles. That is why the first pregnancy takes the longest to show. But, if you are getting pregnant for the second or third time, you might show your pregnancy 3 to 4 weeks earlier than your first time. This is because once your uterus has grown in your first pregnancy; it never goes back to the same size that it was again. Also, your abs muscles become stretched because of your first pregnancy. All these factors make it easier for the baby bump to come out sooner.

The number of babies:

This is a very obvious factor that affects the showing of your pregnancy. If you are pregnant with one baby, you will take more time to show it off. But the belly that has twins in it will start protruding out faster than the others. As the number of the babies increase, your uterus will start taking up more space and hence the baby bump will be bigger and will show up earlier.

Position of the baby:

Your growing baby also decides the time when your baby bump will start showing. If your uterus carrying the baby is tilted towards your spine, you will not show your pregnancy for a longer time. On the other hand, women whose uterus is tilted towards the front side of the belly shows a bigger baby bump and it protrudes out sooner as well.

Abdominal Strength:

Your abdomen plays a huge part in deciding when do you start showing in pregnancy. The strength of your abdomen is the measure of the strength of your muscles. If the muscles are tighter and stronger they will hold the baby in for a longer period of time. This will delay the protrusion. If abdominal muscles of your body are loose, your belly won’t be able to hold onto your baby for a long time and the protrusion will happen soon. This means that your gym training and fitness will help you in maintaining your body’s size even while you are having a baby inside your belly.

Changing your wardrobe:

Most of the women are worried about changing their wardrobe during pregnancy, this is the main reason behind the question “When do you start showing in pregnancy?” If you do not want to spend a lot of money on your clothes, you have to decide exactly how long you are supposed to wear loose clothes. Some women are so excited about their pregnancy that they would buy a lot of loose dresses even before their baby bump has started showing.

As a matter of fact, you can continue wearing your old clothes for the first four months of pregnancy. During the fifth month, you can start shopping for new outfits. But keep it in mind that you won’t be wearing these clothes for more than a few months.

Another important thing is the increasing size of your breasts. Since most women do not have loose bras at their disposal, this is something that you should invest in. Because your breast size and soreness will not decrease for a long time after your baby is born. Make sure that whatever you get is useable and comfortable for you for a longer time so that you do not end up wasting your money.

Pregnancy symptoms week 24

Are you feeling tired all the time? It can be one of the pregnancy symptoms week 24 brings with it. It might also seem quite difficult to fall or stay asleep, no matter how much tired you get. The best remedy is to make sure you are avoiding caffeine and trying to eat your evening meal a little earlier before you go to bed.

The change in your sleeping positions, as well as the use of comfortable pillows, can help you to have good sleep time. Try to sleep on your side instead of back, it can help you to reduce the risk of stillbirth. You will also feel pain in your ribs during the pregnancy but can also be reduced if you sleep on your side.

At 24 weeks of pregnancy, you have entered in month six, only 3 more months to go! We can assure you; we are as much excited as you are.

Baby at 24 weeks pregnancy

By 24 weeks, you may have observed that your baby’s movement levels seem to increase such as before bedtime. Aww! This is cute.

Now your 24 weeks old fetus measures about 11.8 inches in length and weighs around 1.3 pounds. You can compare your baby’s size with a papaya. While pregnancy symptoms week 24 occur, baby at 24 weeks would be considered viable and with a chance of survival if she or he will be born prematurely.

24 weeks pregnant ultrasound

Your baby is developing auditory system rapidly but here is an interesting fact that your baby is still sporting white hairs, white eyelashes, and white eyebrows. All of this yet need to acquire pigment.

Drink up some sweet water! Your doctor will order a Glucose Challenge Screening Test this week to check the risks of gestational diabetes. This test is designed to check how your body processes sugar in 1 hour. If your results are bad, then this is not the end of the world.

You may have another test called a glucose tolerance test, hunker down in the waiting room. It will check how your body processes sugar in 3 hours to make sure that you actually have gestational diabetes.

If you do have gestational diabetes, then your doctor will counsel you on it properly. You may have extra monitoring, extra ultrasound tests. But let us tell you about the bright side, you will get to peek at your soon-to-be baby more frequently!

24 weeks pregnant belly

If your former innie is an outie now, then say hello to pregnancy symptoms week 24. Mostly pregnant women belly button pops as the swelling uterus pushes on inside belly. But it will be normal after the birth of your baby.

You already have experience baby kicks but now these kicks are getting stronger day by day. Recommended weight gain is 14 to 16 pounds by now but if you have gained a little extra then do not worry, it is normal too.

If you are pregnant with twins, then you should gain 24 pounds at the end of pregnancy symptoms week 24.

Showing at 24 weeks first pregnancy

Not showing much in your pregnancy can be true until week 23 but now you have a visible 24 weeks pregnant bump. Your stomach really starts growing now.

Some women start showing a little earlier and if you are one of them, you may surprise yourself at this stage of pregnancy. Because your growing bump could occasionally leave you unsteady on your feet, your center of gravity changed! Try to avoid standing suddenly.

24 weeks pregnant what to expect

Backaches

We know that you have already experienced back pain but now its really getting worse. This is because as your baby grows so does your uterus. Your uterus keeps on pressing your spine, making it straighter and more strained now. Speak with the doctor if you have any concerns.

24 weeks pregnant headache

If you are going through 24 weeks of pregnancy headache, you are hardly alone. According to general observation, 1 in 4 women has a headache in this period. The reasons behind headache can be surging hormones, drop in blood sugar, increased blood volume and circulation, stress, lack of sleep, dehydration, and caffeine withdrawal.

24 weeks pregnant cramping

Tight and achy legs are a sign of dehydration. This can lead you to severe leg cramps so, drink plenty of water, take regular walks, and do some leg stretching exercises.

Stomach pain 24 weeks pregnant

At the end of the second trimester, it is very common to experience round ligament pain. It is stretching pain in the hips and below the belly due to extra weight and pressure inside your belly. Try a maternity pregnancy support belt.

Pregnancy transformation in pregnancy symptoms week 24

Trouble sleeping

Due to increased belly size, it is difficult to find a comfortable sleeping position. Some well-spaced pillows can help.

Dizziness and loss of balance

Your growing belly size affects your weight distribution, making it easier to feel off balance. The changes in blood circulation can cause dizziness. Drink a lot of water and do not stress yourself.

Skin changes

You may have dark patches on your skin due to hormonal changes. The brown patches on your face called chloasma. Try to avoid heavy sun exposures.

Stretch marks

These tiger strips keep on appearing as your skin stretches even more.  If you are pregnant with twins, you probably have more stretch marks on your body.

Swollen ankles and feet

A bit of swelling on your feet and ankles is very common during pregnancy symptoms week 24. Try to do some exercise. Speak with your doctor if swelling seems out of ordinary.

Constipation

Pregnancy hormones can cause your intestinal muscles to relax so it can keep your food in your digestive system for longer. So you and your baby can absorb more nutrients. Drink a lot of water to avoid constipation.

Precautions during the 24th week of pregnancy

  • Follow a healthy diet routine.
  • Try to avoid uncooked and raw food materials.
  • Healthy weight gain is recommended so, try to keep an eye on your weight.
  • Add 300 extra calories in your daily meals.
  • Take care of your bleeding gums and make sure regular checkups to the dentist.
  • Stay hydrated.
  • Get plenty of proteins.

Checklist – pregnancy symptoms week 24

  • Plan your babymoon
  • Prepare for a glucose test
  • Schedule your week 28 prenatal visit
  • Start babyproofing your house

Why am I having Sore breasts after ovulation – Is it normal?

sore breasts after ovulation

Why do women have sore breasts after ovulation?

Sore breasts after ovulation or breast aches around ovulation are absolutely normal. Some women may feel discomfort during ovulation, which could range from minor to severe. A woman might feel pain in one or both breasts. This pain in breast is referred to as mastalgia.

Ovulation is a process in which a female ovary releases an egg each month. It occurs almost about 14 days before a period starts. It is different for each cycle e.g. for a 28 days cycle, a woman would ovulate on day 14. Similarly, for 31 days cycle, a woman would ovulate on day 17. The chances of getting pregnant during the time of ovulation are high.

Is it normal to have sore breasts after ovulation?

It is absolutely normal to have sore breasts after ovulation. Many women experience tenderness and sore breasts after ovulation, which is due to a high level of progesterone in the body. The level of progesterone in the female body increases each day after ovulation until either she gets her periods or she gets pregnant. The level of progesterone decreases if a woman gets her periods while it increases if a woman gets pregnant.

Effects of ovulation on body

During the different phases of the menstrual cycle, hormonal instability occurs. This hormonal instability can cause various symptoms in the woman’s body. Every woman’s body acts differently so it is not necessary for every woman to feel the same symptoms. They depend on how sensitive the body is.

Some of the symptoms a woman may experience are:

Sore breasts after ovulation

Sore breasts after ovulation or breast pain can occur at various times throughout the cycle. Breast discomfort during the cyclic changes is known as cyclic mastalgia.

Vaginal discharge

Some women may notice a wet, clear, and non-itching vaginal discharge before ovulation.

Body temperature

The basal body temperature of a woman increases during ovulation. You can use a thermometer to track your basal body temperature.

Spotting or light bleeding

A woman may have spotting or light bleeding during the time of ovulation. This can be due to hormonal instability.

Increased sex drive

A woman may experience increased sex drive at the time of ovulation.

Pain in ovaries

Pain in ovaries is usually felt at the abdominal or pelvic region, which also linked to ovulation. This pain usually lasts only a few minutes or hours.

Observing these symptoms carefully can help a woman predict when she is ovulating.

How long the sore breasts after ovulation last?

Sore breasts after ovulation or any discomfort in the breast start at the time of ovulation and usually last until either a woman gets her periods or gets pregnant.

These symptoms in each case are different. A woman can find out if these symptoms are related to her menstrual cycle or not by charting her symptoms each month to see when they start and stop.

What are the other causes of sore breasts?

Some women may experience sore breasts after ovulation but there can be some other reasons for the soreness of breasts.

The other causes of sore breasts include

Pregnancy

Any breast changes like soreness, itching, pain, and tenderness can be the signs of early pregnancy too. These symptoms can be observed as early as one week of getting pregnant and will get better after a few weeks.

Symptoms of early pregnancy

Other symptoms of early pregnancy include

  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Bloating
  • Cramps
  • Increased urination
  • Missed periods

Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding can also be a cause of sore breasts, especially if breastfeeding for the first time.

Causes of sore breasts due to breastfeeding can be

  • Improper position
  • Improper posture
  • Inverted nipples
  • Blocked ducts

Sometimes soreness of the breast can be due to infection in the breast known as mastitis.

Signs of breast infection are

  • Breast pain
  • Breast tenderness
  • Change in the color of breast
  • Warm breasts
  • Bleeding
  • Fever
  • Chills

A woman must consult a doctor if she observes any of the symptoms while breastfeeding.

Menstrual cycle and sore breasts after ovulation

Some women may experience sore breasts after ovulation during the menstrual cycle. Sore breasts or breast tenderness is absolutely normal during the menstrual cycle. It begins at the start of the cycle and lasts until the cycle ends.

Hormonal imbalance

There is a hormonal imbalance between progesterone and estrogen if a woman does not ovulate. A high level of estrogen and a low level of progesterone can be the reason for sore breasts after ovulation.

Breast cancer

Sore breasts are a very rare sign of breast cancer. Other symptoms of breast cancer include

  • A lump in the breast
  • A lump in the underarm region
  • Pain in the breast
  • Swelling in the breast
  • Nipple discharge
  • Itchy breasts
  • Skin irritation
  • Redness of the breasts
  • The thickness of the breast skin
  • Inverted nipples

If a woman observes any of the symptoms immediately consult her doctor as these symptoms can be alarming.

Skin problems

Any skin condition like eczema can cause dry and irritated skin of the breast leading to the soreness.

Miscellaneous

Other causes of sore breasts include

  • Wearing tight clothes
  • Wearing a small or tight bra
  • Rubbing the breasts
  • Certain drugs

Can sore breasts after ovulation cause discomfort?

The discomfort in sore breasts after ovulation can be mild or severe. If the discomfort is severe, it is affecting your routine life and does not go away even after the menstrual cycle, then consult your doctor. He may advise you some hormone blockers or birth control pills. This will treat your hormone-related symptoms.

Dietary changes such as avoiding alcohol, caffeinated drinks, and high fat-containing food can also help to treat the discomfort.

Conclusion

Sore breasts after ovulation are usually due to high progesterone levels in the body. It is a really good sign of ovulation. With each passing day after ovulation, the level of progesterone in the female body increases until you either get your period or you get pregnant. The level of progesterone increases when a woman is pregnant and it decreases if a woman gets her periods.

 

Is toothpaste pregnancy test reliable? Step by step guide

toothpaste pregnancy test

What is a Toothpaste pregnancy test?

It is one of the quickest homemade pregnancy tests as it can be carried out easily at home by women whenever they want. It is an easy way to find out if you are expecting or not. Many women who avoid getting a pregnancy test by kit use the homemade toothpaste test to confirm whether they are expecting or not.

In this test, a woman uses toothpaste and her early morning urine to check whether the pregnancy hormone is present in the urine or not. This is primarily because the toothpaste by nature is HCG (the pregnancy hormone) sensitive.

When can you perform the homemade toothpaste pregnancy test?

You can perform this homemade toothpaste pregnancy test when you have unprotected sex, miss a period or observe any symptoms of pregnancy.

Symptoms of pregnancy

  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Missed period
  • Cramps
  • Swelling in the vaginal area

How to perform the toothpaste pregnancy test?

Performing a homemade toothpaste pregnancy test is really an easy task, as you only need a few items to do the test. This test was used by women in rural areas for decades as a pregnancy test kits were not easily available back then owing to a lack of large medical stores.

Things required

Items required for taking the test are

  1. Urine sample
  2. Two small-sized cups
  3. Toothpaste

Steps for performing the test

  1. Take your urine sample in a cup
  2. Take a small amount of toothpaste in the second cup
  3. Add your urine sample to the toothpaste
  4. Wait for a couple of minutes
  5. Observe for any visible changes
  6. If the color and consistency of urine changes then the test is positive and you may be pregnant
  7. If you observe no change and the color remains the same, then you are not pregnant and the test is negative
  8. Throw away the mix

Things to take care while taking this test

The most important thing is to ensure cleanliness and quality as both of these can have great effects on the outcome of your test. The toothpaste should be of plain white color as it contains fewer chemicals and the color change is easily visible as compared to the colored toothpaste which contains more chemicals and dyes, affecting the results of the homemade toothpaste pregnancy test. The cups should be cleaned before performing the test. This ensures that there are no false results that occur as a result of any foreign substances already present in the cup.

How accurate is the toothpaste pregnancy test?

The accuracy of the toothpaste pregnancy test is not as good as that of the pregnancy test kit. Although if compared with other homemade pregnancy tests (which include baking soda test, salt pregnancy test, sugar pregnancy test), it is the one with the most precision of the result. The accuracy of the test depends upon the quality and condition of the things you are using for taking the test. If you are using clean items and taking care of the proper time, the results will be more accurate.

What are the results of the toothpaste pregnancy test?

The result of this test can either be positive or negative. There can also be a false result.

Positive Result

Add urine sample to the toothpaste, if the color and consistency of urine change within 2 minutes, then the test is positive and it should ideally mean that maybe you are pregnant.

Negative Result

Add urine sample to the toothpaste, if the color and consistency of urine do not change within 2 minutes, then the test is negative and you may not be pregnant.

False result of toothpaste pregnancy test

The toothpaste is HCG sensitive, that is why if taken too early, it might give false results. It is also very important to time toothpaste pregnancy test correctly. If the mixture is kept for too long, the color will change due to chemical reaction but not because you are pregnant.

You can repeat the test if you think its a false result.

How does the test work?

This homemade test works with a simple principle. The urine of a pregnant woman contains HCG which is a pregnancy hormone and is produced in large quantities during pregnancy. This hormone reacts with the chemicals in the toothpaste and a visible change in the color and texture of urine is seen.

If the hormone is not present in the urine, there will be no chemical reaction. This means that you are not pregnant.

Does the toothpaste pregnancy test really work?

This homemade pregnancy test does certainly work. It gives quick results within 2-3 minutes. The results appear as a change in color or texture of the urine. If the urine becomes frothy or forms bubbles, it means that the pregnancy hormone HCG is present in the urine which has reacted with the toothpaste and the test is positive.

If there is no change in the mixture in the next 3-5 minutes, you are probably not pregnant.

 

Is the toothpaste pregnancy test reliable?

It is reliable only as a preliminary test but taking it as the final verdict is a dangerous idea, you must consult a doctor even after a positive result.

It has a success rate of around 85% but the chances of false are around 15% which cannot be ignored. Some women are not able to hold their excitement even a day after having sex, therefore, they may take this homemade pregnancy test to curb the anxiety.

Testing with toothpaste is the best homemade method to check for pregnancy and the ease of doing this pregnancy test is what interests women.

 

Advantages and disadvantages of the test

Everything has some advantages and disadvantages, so does this test. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the test which you should be aware of.

Advantages

  • One of the cheapest methods to check pregnancy at home
  • Easy to perform
  • Allows repetition
  • Saves time
  • Easy to distinguish the changes in the urine sample

Disadvantages

  • Results can be confusing
  • May gives false results